At the bottom is a 'shot' of the assembled board--just so you know where we are headed!
Here are a few critical items to note about Part Orientations:
- RESISTORS don't matter which direction they are stuffed in (this is called Non-Polarized or NP for short). Any thing with a value like 68k or 4.75k is a resistor.
- Most of the capacitors are NP--except for one type (see below). Any thing with a value like 220pF or .01uF is a capacitor.
- The 22uF cap IS Polarized and the direction is very critical (damage may occur if you get it wrong).
- Diodes are always POLARIZED, and your circuit may sound strange if you plug them in the wrong way. The standard is to always bend diodes as shown below (i.e. top of the 'body' is the cathode or 'bar' side).
- The OpAmp MUST be installed in the exact orientation shown below, or else damage may ensue!